Drought’s Impact on Crop Plants and Genetic Drought Resistance

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Year:
2023
Type of Publication:
Article
Keywords:
Drought Resilience, Yield Loss, Resistance, Genetic Bases, Climate Smart, Food Security
Authors:
Begna, Temesgen; Gichile, Hayilu; Teressa, Temesgen
Journal:
IJRAS
Volume:
10
Number:
5
Pages:
91-102
Month:
September
ISSN:
2348-3997
Abstract:
Drought is one of the biggest problems in the current climatic environment and is one of the most severe abiotic stresses in many parts of the globe. The most significant environmental stressor that adversely affects crop yield and quality globally is drought. In the coming decades, climate change raises the likelihood that droughts will become worse in many regions of the world, affecting crops already damaged by aberrant metabolism and possibly reducing their growth and development. Water stress also affects the physiological activity of the crop by inhibiting photosynthesis and the uptake of nutrients by the growing leaves. There is always a possibility that crops could fail or their yields might drop because of moisture stress, particularly in regions where crop production is entirely dependent on rainfall. When moisture stress is extreme, the crop may completely fail. At various growth stages, drought stress negatively impacts yield and qualities that are connected to yield, which results in a decrease in yield. The impact of drought stress is primarily influenced by the plant's stage of development, the intensity and length of the stress, the genetic potential of the species, and environmental interactions. Crop plants have developed numerous morphological, physiological, and biochemical systems as adaptation methods to survive under drought stress. A plant, however, may use multiple coping mechanisms when faced with drought stress. The mechanism (s) responsible for the least amount of crop loss during a drought are known as drought resistance. Some drought resistance methods include ways to avoid dehydration, reduce transpiration, or physiological variables. Climate change will eventually endanger global food security, making it more difficult than ever in the twenty-first century to feed the increasing world population. To maximize yield potential while reducing the risk of climate change, it is crucial to utilize well-adapted, high-yielding varieties that are resistant to drought stress. The only option to mitigate the negative effects of climate changes on crop adaptability is through climate-smart agriculture, which can be done before they have a significant impact on world crop production.

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