Development and Characterization of Nanoemulsions Incorporating Tuna Fish Oil
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- Tuna Fish Oil, Purity Gum Ultra, Nanoemulsion, Storage Stability, Rheology
- Ali, Ahmad; Rehman, Abdur; Shehzad, Qayyum; Khan, Sohail; Karim, Aiman; Afzal, Nida; Hussain, Asif; Yang, Fang; Xia, Wenshui
- Tuna fish oil (TFO) possesses various health-promoting and nutritional benefits due to the presence of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA). The foremost limitation in its application in broad-spectrum is its instability when exposed to the environment. In the present study, tuna fish oil was encapsulated in nanoemulsions stabilized by purity gum ultra (PGU), that is, octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) modified starch. Different concentrations (1, 1.5 and 2%) of PGU were used to prepare tuna fish oil loaded nanoemulsions to select the best and optimum concentration of PGU. For that reason, the high energy input technique (Ultrasonic homogenization) was used to prepare the nanoemulsions in the current study. The freshly prepared nanoemulsions were then characterized in terms of size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP) and rheological properties as well as observed the particle size by confocal microscopy. Results of freshly prepared nanoemulsions presented that as concentrations of PGU increased, a gradual increase in size (226 to 259 nm) was reported, whereas the trend for ZP (– 34.2 to – 31.4 mV) exhibited reverse pattern. Besides, all nanoemulsions showed shear thinning behavior. Furthermore, confocal results depicted that the oil droplets were successfully encapsulated within the nanoemulsions. All nanoemulsions were subjected to 4 weeks of storage at room temperature for the evaluation of physical stability. After 4 weeks, a gradual increase in size and PDI for all samples was monitored, whereas ZP values were decreased to some extent. On the other hand, all nanoemulsions had displayed shear thinning behavior even after 4 weeks. The confocal microscopy image of prepared nanoemulsion (1.5% PGU) confirmed very fine and evenly distributed oil droplets as compared to other formulations after a storage period. According to our findings, prepared nanoemulsion (1.5% PGU) showed negligible changes after one-month storage. Thus, such nanoemulsions can be developed and incorporated into dairy and beverage products.
Full text: IJRRAS_823_FINAL.pdf